Home > programming > SQL Tuning/SQL Optimization Techniques:

SQL Tuning/SQL Optimization Techniques:


SQL Tuning/SQL Optimization Techniques:

1) The sql query becomes faster if you use the actual columns names in SELECT statement instead of than ‘*’.

For Example: Write the query as

SELECT id, first_name, last_name, age, subject FROM student_details;

Instead of:

{
SELECT * FROM student_details;

}

 

2) HAVING clause is used to filter the rows after all the rows are selected. It is just like a filter. Do not use HAVING clause for any other purposes.
For Example: Write the query as

{
SELECT subject, count(subject) 
FROM student_details 
WHERE subject != 'Science' 
AND subject != 'Maths' 
GROUP BY subject;

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT subject, count(subject) 
FROM student_details 
GROUP BY subject 
HAVING subject!= 'Vancouver' AND subject!= 'Toronto';

}

 

3) Sometimes you may have more than one subqueries in your main query. Try to minimize the number of subquery block in your query.
For Example: Write the query as

{
SELECT name 
FROM employee 
WHERE (salary, age ) = (SELECT MAX (salary), MAX (age) 
FROM employee_details) 
AND dept = 'Electronics'; 

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT name 
FROM employee
WHERE salary = (SELECT MAX(salary) FROM employee_details) 
AND age = (SELECT MAX(age) FROM employee_details) 
AND emp_dept = 'Electronics';

}

 

4) Use operator EXISTS, IN and table joins appropriately in your query.
a) Usually IN has the slowest performance.
b) IN is efficient when most of the filter criteria is in the sub-query.
c) EXISTS is efficient when most of the filter criteria is in the main query.

For Example: Write the query as

{
Select * from product p 
where EXISTS (select * from order_items o 
where o.product_id = p.product_id)

}
Instead of:

{
Select * from product p 
where product_id IN 
(select product_id from order_items

}

 

5) Use EXISTS instead of DISTINCT when using joins which involves tables having one-to-many relationship.
For Example: Write the query as

{
SELECT d.dept_id, d.dept 
FROM dept d 
WHERE EXISTS ( SELECT 'X' FROM employee e WHERE e.dept = d.dept);

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT DISTINCT d.dept_id, d.dept 
FROM dept d,employee e 
WHERE e.dept = e.dept;

}

 

6) Try to use UNION ALL in place of UNION.
For Example: Write the query as

{
SELECT id, first_name 
FROM student_details_class10 
UNION ALL 
SELECT id, first_name 
FROM sports_team;

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT id, first_name, subject 
FROM student_details_class10 
UNION 
SELECT id, first_name 
FROM sports_team;

}

 

7) Be careful while using conditions in WHERE clause.
For Example: Write the query as

{
SELECT id, first_name, age FROM student_details WHERE age > 10;

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT id, first_name, age FROM student_details WHERE age != 10;

}
Write the query as

{
SELECT id, first_name, age 
FROM student_details 
WHERE first_name LIKE 'Chan%';

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT id, first_name, age 
FROM student_details 
WHERE SUBSTR(first_name,1,3) = 'Cha';

}
Write the query as

{
SELECT id, first_name, age 
FROM student_details 
WHERE first_name LIKE NVL ( :name, '%');

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT id, first_name, age 
FROM student_details 
WHERE first_name = NVL ( :name, first_name);

}
Write the query as

{
SELECT product_id, product_name 
FROM product 
WHERE unit_price BETWEEN MAX(unit_price) and MIN(unit_price)

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT product_id, product_name 
FROM product 
WHERE unit_price >= MAX(unit_price) 
and unit_price <= MIN(unit_price)

}
Write the query as

{
SELECT id, name, salary 
FROM employee 
WHERE dept = 'Electronics' 
AND location = 'Bangalore';

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT id, name, salary 
FROM employee 
WHERE dept || location= 'ElectronicsBangalore';

}
Use non-column expression on one side of the query because it will be processed earlier.

 

Write the query as

{
SELECT id, name, salary 
FROM employee 
WHERE salary < 25000;

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT id, name, salary 
FROM employee 
WHERE salary + 10000 < 35000;

}
Write the query as

{
SELECT id, first_name, age 
FROM student_details 
WHERE age > 10;

}
Instead of:

{
SELECT id, first_name, age 
FROM student_details 
WHERE age NOT = 10;

}
8) To store large binary objects, first place them in the file system and add the file path in the database.

 

9) To write queries which provide efficient performance follow the general SQL standard rules.
a) Use single case for all SQL verbs
b) Begin all SQL verbs on a new line
c) Separate all words with a single space
d) Right or left aligning verbs within the initial SQL verb

 

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